Leon Trotsky, a devout Marxist revolutionary published Vodka, the Church, and the Cinema in 1923, emphasizing the new divisions taking place in the lives of workers. He emphasized the importance of the new 8-hour work day, which led to fractioning the worker’s day into three 8-hour categories, “Eight hours work, eight hours sleep, eight hours play.” The revolutionaries in Russia at the time wanted to harness the power of new technologies, including the newly popular cinema. This was an effort to align their own progressive ideologies with the progressive technologies making their way into society at the time. Trotsky portrayed the new freedoms of the 8-hour work day as an exploratory time where man could finally pursue leisure and recreation. This was what was so revolutionary about the cinema, Trotsky purported that no matter the education, the visuals and sounds appealed to the proletariat senses, “the passion for the cinema is rooted in the desire for distraction, the desire for something new and improbable, to laugh to cry, not at your own, but at other people’s misfortunes.” Trotsky wanted to exploit the power of the cinema as a method of socialist propaganda, and he even compared this to the propaganda of the church. However, he condemned the church as a government institution that proliferated not out of religious zeal, but merely out of mundane habit. He compared the way in which the church appealed to the senses, “by theatrical methods the church works on the sight, the sense of smell (through incense), and through them on the imagination,” which were many of the same characteristics that brought people to the cinema. He asserted that while there was no spiritual element of the cinema there was a longing to be distracted through theatrical productions, which may also serve to prove that, while circumstances were improving for working class citizens there was still an innate longing to escape, perhaps from the imminence of revolutionary change, or perhaps from the monotony of their own lives.